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Cost-Effective Corrosion Protection Systems for Reinforced Concrete
Owners of concrete structures are looking at ways of cost-effectively protecting new assets such as bridges and parking garages against corrosion. In order to conduct economic analyses for corrosion-induced damage, knowledge of chloride ingress, the amount of chloride to initiate corrosion, corrosion rates and the amount of corrosion to cause cracking are required. This 4-page document summarizes key findings from a study conducted at the University of Phoenix relating to the cost and performance of concrete bridge decks containing various corrosion-protective systems. The study found that the life-cycle cost of a deck using epoxy-coated reinforcing steel was almost half that of the deck containing uncoated reinforcing steel and approximately 35 percent lower than a deck containing Type 2205 Stainless steel. This report is of value to those evaluating alternative corrosion-protection systems for concrete bridges.
EIG_Cost_Effective_Corrosion_Protection_systems_4pg.pdf
(942.8 KB PDF File)
 
 
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Evaluation of Multiple Corrosion Protection Systems for Reinforced Concrete Bridge Decks
In 2011, the University of Kansas Center for Research published a report titled “Evaluation of Multiple Corrosion Protection Systems for Reinforced Concrete Bridge Decks,” based upon a Ph.D. thesis. Major funding for this work was provided by the Kansas Department of Transportation and the Federal Highway Administration. The 487-page report provides an in-depth evaluation of the performance of corrosion inhibitors, epoxy-coated reinforcing steel and stainless steel and includes documentation of extensive laboratory and field research, an evaluation of the amount of corrosion to cause cracking, and an economic analysis. The research supports continued use of epoxy-coated reinforcing steel as corrosion rates were substantially reduced even in cracked concrete and initial and life-cycle costs were lower than the other systems that were evaluated. This report is of value to engineers and researchers that are considering various corrosion-resistant reinforcing systems.
EIG_Cost_Effective_Corrosion_7pg.pdf
(1.2 MB PDF File)
 
 
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Rapid Macrocell Tests of ASTM A775, A615, and A1035 Reinforcing Bars
The corrosion performance of epoxy-coated steel meeting the requirements of ASTM A775 with the coating in an undamaged condition and two damaged conditions (0.04% and 0.83% damaged area) is evaluated in accordance with Annexes A1 and A2 of ASTM 955 and compared with the corrosion performance of conventional reinforcing steel meeting the requirements of ASTM A615 steel and low-carbon, chromium steel meeting the requirements of A1035, with the latter in both the as-received and pickled conditions. Epoxy-coated bars provide significantly better corrosion performance than conventional reinforcing steel. Conventional and A1035 steel exhibit average values near 30 μm/yr for and 20 μm/yr, respectively. Pickling provides initial protection to A1035 steel bars, and to some bars for the duration of the test, but once corrosion initiates, corrosion appears to be similar to that observed on non-pickled bars.
SL Report 10-4.pdf
(724.7 KB PDF File)
 
 
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Condition of Bridge Decks in West Virginia containing epoxy-coated bars
This document reports on a survey conducted in 2009 of 6 bridges constructed between 1974 and 1976 containing epoxy-coated reinforcing bars in West Virginia and compares the performance of these with documented repairs of companion black bar structures. The report found that where corrosion was observed for the epoxy-coated bars, coating thicknesses were less than that of current specifications and that chloride contents were high. It was found that the black bar decks were repaired in 1993 and that no repairs have been made to the decks containing epoxy-coated bars. Thus, epoxy-coated bars were found to provide substantial life extension to bridge decks.
WJE WV_full_report.pdf
(5.8 MB PDF File)
 
 
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Performance of ECR in Marine Substructures 01-09-07

This detailed report provides information on testing conducted by WJE on epoxy-coated reinforcing bars used to improve the life in numerous marine bridges, many of which have been in service for more than 35 years.

To determine what level of corrosion protection is currently being provided by the epoxy coating in aged marine bridges substructures, an investigation was performed on four coastal bridges that were constructed in the mid-1980s:
• MacKay River Bridge near Brunswick, Georgia; (1984)
• Ocean Isle Bridge in Ocean Isle, North Carolina; (1985)
• Holden Beach Bridge in Holden Beach, North Carolina; (1985)
• Atlantic Beach Bridge in Atlantic Beach, North Carolina. (1985

WJE_Performance_of_ECR_Marine_Substructures_01-09-07.pdf
(2.2 MB PDF File)
 
 
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Critical review of VTRC report on cost of ECR and MMFX
In 2009, a report was published by the Virginia Transportation Research Institute (VTRC) regarding installation and costs of epoxy-coated and MMFX 2 reinforcing in a six-lane bridge on State Route 123 over the Occoquan River. Based upon review of the report many of the conclusions reached by the authors cannot be substantiated. Review has shown that: material costs for ECR are significantly cheaper than for MMFX2, handling costs are similar for both systems and if cracks in decks are to be repaired, they should be done prior to bridge opening to prevent user delays.
Review of Report = VTRC cost of MMFX vs ECR.pdf
(231.1 KB PDF File)
 
 
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Critical review of VTRC report on ECR performance
In 2008, a report sponsored Virginia Transportation Research Council was published that reached conclusions regarding the manufacture and durability of epoxy-coated reinforcing steel. However, review of this report found that that many of the conclusions reached by the authors of that report cannot be supported and inappropriate techniques were used to evaluate the extracted bars. Despite concerns, the report indicates that epoxy-coated reinforcing steel continues to perform well at high chloride contents.
REVIEW OF REPORT - VTRC.pdf
(177.2 KB PDF File)
 
 
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NYSDOT - Bridge Deck Deterioration Rates
A report by NYSDOT titled “Bridge Element Deterioration Rates” used field data from 17000 bridges and concluded that "...structural decks with epoxy-coated rebars perform significantly better than those with uncoated rebars, especially in the later years.
Bridge Deck Deterioration Rates 2009.pdf
(1.9 MB PDF File)
 
 
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MNDOT - Corrosion Performance of Epoxy-Coated Reinforcement Bars
This paper describes performance of epoxy-coated bars in bridge decks in Minneapolis.
MNDOT REPORT - 200847TS.pdf
(425.3 KB PDF File)
 
 
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Considerations Necessary to Estimate the Service Life of Epoxy Coated Reinforcement in Bridge Decks
P. D. Krauss and J.S. Lawler Wiss, Janney, Elstner Associates, 2005
This paper discusses various issues relevant to the performance of bridge decks containing epoxy-coated reinforcing steel.
Considerations_Nec_to_Est_Service_Life.pdf
(1.1 MB PDF File)
 
 
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Corrosion Evaluation of Epoxy-Coated, Metallic-Clad and Solid Metallic Reinforcing Bars in Concrete
D.B. McDonald, D.W. Pfeifer, M.R. Sherman; Wiss, Janney, Elstner Associates; 1998
This report describes results obtained from a 5-year test program to develop cost-effective "new breeds" of organic, inorganic, ceramic and metallic coatings, as well as metallic alloys that can be utilized on or as steel reinforcement for embedment in portland cement concrete.
Corrosion_Eval_of_ECR-Clad-Solid_Rebar.pdf
(13.7 MB PDF File)
 
 
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Summary of the Impact of Concrete Cracking on Bridge Decks Constructed with ECR Bars
Iowa Department of Transportation and Iowa Highway Research Board; 2003
This paper discusses various issues relevant to the performance of bridge decks containing epoxy-coated reinforcing steel.
CRSI_Epoxy_Research_Series_10.pdf
(115.9 KB PDF File)
 
 
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Service Life Extension of Northern Bridge Decks Containing Epoxy-coated Reinforcing Bars
S.K. Lee and P.D. Krauss; Wiss, Janney, Elstner Associates; 2003; (Detailed)
At the request of Concrete Reinforcing Steel Institute (CRSI), Wiss, Janney, Elstner Associates, Inc. (WJE) launched a three-year research project in July 2000.
CRSI_Phases_I_and_II_final_report.pdf
(2.9 MB PDF File)
 
 
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Service Life Extension of Northern Bridge Decks Containing Epoxy-Coated Reinforcing Bars
Concrete Reinforcing Steel Institute (CRSI) (Summary)
The use of epoxy-coated steel reinforcing bars has gained widespread acceptance as a means to extend the service life of reinforced concrete bridge decks and other reinforced concrete structures susceptible to corrosion.
CRSI_Research_12.pdf
(552.9 KB PDF File)
 
 
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Epoxy-Coated Reinforcing Bars
Davud Gustafson; Concrete Reinforcing Steel Institute (CRSI); 1999
An Effective Corrosion-Protection System for Reinforced Concrete Structures.
ECR-Effective Corrosion Protection System.pdf
(2.2 MB PDF File)
 
 
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Impact of Deck Cracking on Durability
Development Division, Iowa Department of Transportation and the Iowa Highway Research Board; 2000
Corrosion is a natural phenomenon that occurs when the substance of a material reacts with the surroundings in a chemical or physical process.
Impact_of_Deck_Cracking_on_Durability.pdf
(2.6 MB PDF File)
 
 
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Improving the Quality of Epoxy-Coated Steel Reinforcing Bars
Scott R. Humphreys; Manager of Corrosion Protection, Concrete Reinforcing Steel Institute (CRSI); 2004
Improving the Quality of Epoxy-Coated Steel Reinforcing Bars through CRSI’s Epoxy Coating Applicator Plant Certification Program.
Improving_Quality_of_ECR-PGP.pdf
(4.0 MB PDF File)
 
 
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Long-Term Performance of Epoxy-Coated Reinforcing Steel in Heavy Salt-Contaminated Concrete
S.K. Lee, and P.D. Krauss; Wiss, Janney, Elstner Associates; 2004
This report describes results obtained from a long-term natural weathering exposure testing of the remaining 31 post-Southern Exposure (SE) test slabs that contained epoxy-coated reinforcing bar (ECR), black bars, and stainless steel bars were not autopsied during the 1993-1998 Federal Highway Administration (FHWA) research project.
Longterm_Perform_of_ECR_in_Heavy_Salt.pdf
(4.2 MB PDF File)
 
 
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Performance of Epoxy Coated Rebars in Bridge Decks
J.L Smith and Y.P. Virmani; Office of Engineering Research and Development Federal Highway Administration; 1996
Perf_of_ECR_in_Bridge_Decks.pdf
(11.1 MB PDF File)
 
 
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Mechanical and Corrosion Properties of a High-Strength, High Chromium Reinforcing Steel for Concrete
D. Darwin, J. Browning, T. Van Nguyen and C. Locke, Jr.; University of Kansas Center for Research, Inc.; 2002
Study SD2001-05, Final Report.
South_Dakata's_Mechanical_Corrosion Properties.pdf
(7.1 MB PDF File)
 
 
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Verification of Effectiveness of Epoxy-Coated Rebars
A.A. Sohanghpurwala and W T. Scannell; Concorr Inc.; 1998
Pennsylvania Department of Transportation.
Verification_of_Effectiveness_of_ECR.pdf
(6.5 MB PDF File)